The name Palenque comes from the town Santo Domingo de Palenque which was built over some peripheral ruins down in the valley form the main ceremonial center of the ancient city. In 1874 Antonio del Rio along with Antonio Bernasconi and Jose Antonio Calderon led the first excavation of the Mayan ruins of Palenque. They traveled for Guatemala to Palenque to give a report of the accounts to the Real Audiencia. Palenque was proclaimed a world heritage site by the UNESCO.
Agua Azul was pronounced in 1908 as a wildlife refugee and later promoted to Biosphere reserve status, there are many different species that inhabit the surroundings, the terrestrial animals can range form jaguars, to countless species of birdlife ( Guacamaya, Tukan, Tapir). Agua Azul is undoubtedly one of the best waterfalls because of their drops and beautiful scenery.
The site is particularly known for its well preserved sculptured stone lintels set above the doorways on the main structures, the lintels contain hieroglyphic texts describing the dynastic history of the city. The site contains impressive ruins with palaces and temples bordering a plaza upon a terrace above the Usumacinta River. The architectural remains extend across the higher terraces and the hills to the south of the river, overlooking the river it self and the lowlands beyond.
Bonampak is located 155km southeast from Palenque and about 30km south of the quite large Mayan archaeological site of Yaxchilan near the border with Guatemala in Chiapas, Mexico. Bonampak is in midst of the lacandon jungle, and it is very well known for its famous mural paintings, it was first seen by non-Mayans in 1946 by two American travelers, Herman Charles Frey and John Bourne.
Toniná means house of stone in the Tzeltal language of the local Maya inhabitants, an alternate interpretation is “the place where stone sculptures are raised to honor time”. The principal architecture is located in the acropolis, which occupies seven south-facing terraces on the northern side of the platform, rising 71 meters (233 ft.) over the plaza below. Toniná is separated from Palenque by mountainous terrain and the site core is located to the west of a seasonal tributary of the Río Jataté, one of the two rivers forming the Ocosingo Valley.
The city, especially the historic center, has maintained its Spanish colonial layout, with narrow cobblestone streets; roofs covered in red clay tile and wrought iron balconies with flowers. The facades of the buildings vary from Baroque to neoclassical and Moorish, painted in various colors. Major landmarks of the city include the Cathedral and the Santo Domingo church with its large open-air crafts market.
The Sumidero Canyon is a narrow and deep canyon surrounded by a national park located just north of the city of Tuxtla Gutiérrez in the state of Chiapas; it was formed by cracks in the earth’s crust along with erosion by the Grijalva River, which still flows through it. The canyon has vertical walls, which reach as high as 1000 meters. The layers are riddled with little caves that drain water during heavy rains. The Sumidero canyon ecosystem is quite diverse and thankfully intact.